Being situated at the tri-junction of Southeast Asia, South Asia and East Asia, the Republic of the Union of Myanmar lies between north latitudes 09.32 ံN and 28.31 ံN and between longitudes 92.10 ံE and 101.11 ံE.
Geographically, shares borders with The Republic of India and The People’s Republic of Bangladesh in the west, with The People’s Republic of China in the north, and with Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Kingdom of Thailand in the east. To the far south of Myanmar lies the Bay of Bengal linking to the Indian Ocean.
The country covers an area of 677,000 square kilometers (261,228 square miles) ranging 936 kilometers (582 miles) from east to west and 2,051 kilometers (1,275 miles) from north to south. Myanmar is the largest country in mainland Southeast Asia. It is a land of hills and valleys and is rimmed in the north, east and west by mountain ranges forming a giant horseshoe.
Enclosed within the mountain barriers are the flat lands of Ayeyarwaddy, Chindwin and Sittaung River valleys where most of the country’s agricultural land and population are concentrated.
The length of contiguous frontier is 6,159 kilometers. The total length of Myanmar-Bangladesh boundary is 271 kilometers (152 miles). The total length of Myanmar-China boundary is 2,204 kilometers (1,375 miles); Myanmar-Thailand 2,107 kilometers (1,314 miles); Myanmar-India 1,338 kilometers (857 miles); and Myanmar-Laos 238 kilometers (128 miles).
Generally, we have three seasons. The summer is from March to May, the rainy season from middle of May to end of October, and the cold season from November to end of February.
Myanmar enjoys a tropical monsoon climate. However, climatic conditions differ widely from place to place due to widely diverse topographical conditions. For instance, Central Myanmar has an annual rainfall of less than 40 inches while the Rakhine Coast and Taninthayi Coast get about 200 inches.
The temperature of Central is about 110 degree Fahrenheit (43.3 degrees Centigrade) in the months of March and April. During the period, the temperature of the northern part of Myanmar reaches 97 degrees Fahrenheit (36.1 degrees Centigrade) and in Shan Plateau it is about 85 to 95 degrees Fahrenheit (29.4 to 35 degrees Centigrade). Temperature of towns vary according to their location and elevation.
Extremes of temperature are not encountered. The directions of winds and depression bring rains and in some years past, severe storms occurred causing damages in coastal regions. On 2 May 2008, Myanmar was hit by the Cyclone Nargis which was the severest one of the natural disasters in the history of Myanmar. In order to bring about the favorable climatic conditions, the State has given priority to the forest conservation and greening of nine arid districts in central Myanmar.
The Republic of the Union of Myanmar has over 135 national races, of which the main national races are Kachin, Kayah, Kayin, Chin, Bamar, Mon, Rakhine and Shan. The population of the country is estimated at 51.4 million (2014 Provisional) and the population growth rate is 1.52 percent.
It has abundance natural resources such as petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas and hydropower.
Rice, pulses and beans, oilseeds, fruits and vegetables, sugarcane, hardwood, marine products are produced in Myanmar.
Agricultural processing, knit and woven apparel, garments, oil and natural gas, jade and gems, wood and wood products, copper, tin, tungsten, iron, manufacturing, construction materials, pharmaceuticals, fertilizer and cement industries are being operated.
Agricultural produce, wood products, natural gas, minerals, marine products, clothing, jade and gems and all exportable commodities are exported.
Crude oil, petroleum products, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, construction materials, fertilizer, cement, edible oil, food products, fabric and plastics resin are imported.
Pyar, Kyat ( 1 Kyat = 100 Pyars)
1 April – 31 March
International Organization Participation
Myanmar is a member of various international organization: APT, ARF, ADB, ASEAN, BIMSTEC, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77,IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OPCW (signatory), SAARC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO.
There are 7 Regions and 7 States.
Region : Ayeyarwaddy, Bago, Magway, Mandalay, Sagaing, Tanintharyi, Yangon.
States :Chin, Kachin, Kayar, Kayin, Mon, Rakhaine, Shan.
There are over 100 ethnic groups in our country.
Myanmar enjoys religious tolerance and since the ancient times, there has been full freedom of worship for followers of different religions. So, different religions can be practiced in Myanmar. The religious edifices and religious orders have been in existence and religious festivals can be held on a grand scale.
The main religions of the country are Buddhism (89.3 %), Christianity(5.6%), Islam(3.8%), Hinduism(0.5%), Spiritualism(0.2%) and others(0.6%).
Official Language is Burmese. Minority ethnic groups have their own languages.